April 9, 2014
Article by Global Pre-Meds
Hospital doctor shadowing & global health experience programs.
· Obstetrics and Gynaecology
· Radiation Oncology
· Allergy & Immunology
Obstetrics and gynaecology is a diversified specialty that deals with the delivery of medical and surgical care to women. This field combines two specialties:
Obstetrics, which involves providing care for women before, during and after childbirth
Gynaecology, which focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the female reproductive system, breasts and associated disorders
Obstetrician-gynaecologists or Ob-Gyns typically maintain long-term relationships with patients and often care for them right through the postmenopausal stage. These specialists often serve as consultants to other physicians. In many cases, the Ob-Gyn is the primary care physician, with whom female patients have regular contact and obtain medical advice and counselling. The specialty also offers opportunities to practice other skills such as endocrinology, laparoscopic surgery and preventive medicine.
Radiation oncology is concerned with the causes, prevention, treatment and management of cancer with special emphasis on the role of ionising radiation. These specialists employ a wide range of treatment modalities, from external beam radiotherapy, which involves the use of protons, neutrons, photons and electrons to radioactive implantations and hyperthermia. Sometimes they may use combined modality therapy such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy or biological modifiers and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is used for both, the curative and palliative treatment of cancer.
An allergist-immunologist is trained in the evaluation, diagnosis and management of disorders involving the immune system, such as asthma, rhinitis, eczema, anaphylaxis and adverse reactions to insect stings, foods and drugs. They also deal with acquired and congenital immune deficiency diseases, problems related to autoimmune disease, organ transplantation or malignancies of the immune system. These specialists identify, isolate and eliminate the substance or allergen causing the problem and start a treatment plan depending on the type and extent of the allergy. As our understanding of the immune system develops, the scope of this specialty is widening.
Dermatology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the skin, hair, nails, mouth and external genitalia as well as a number of sexually transmitted diseases. Dermatologists also focus on the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancers, moles, melanomas and other tumours of the skin, the management of contact dermatitis and other allergic and non-allergic skin disorders and in the recognition of the skin manifestations of systemic and infectious diseases.
Dermatologists may do further specialisation in dermatopathology, which involves the diagnosis of infectious, immunologic, degenerative and neoplastic skin diseases and in the surgical techniques used in dermatology. The care of dermatology patients may entail both topical and systemic medical therapeutics and various surgical and cosmetic procedures, including excisions, laser surgery, skin cancer treatment, correction of acne scarring, hair transplants, sclerotherapy, liposuction, anti-aging treatments, vein therapy, injectable and implantable soft tissue fillers, chemical peeling, tissue augmentation therapies and reconstructive flaps and grafts. In addition, dermatologists play a vital role in the prevention, diagnosis and management of skin cancer.
Neuromuscular Medicine deals with abnormalities of the peripheral nerves, nerve roots, motor neuron, muscle and neuromuscular junction that affect children and adults. Neuromuscular Medicine specialists possess knowledge of the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders at a level that is significantly beyond the training and knowledge expected of a general neurologist or a paediatric neurologist.