A Look At Different Specialised Surgical TechniquesFebruary 12, 2014
With huge advancements that have been made across all medical fields, the surgery scene too had changed dramatically. No longer are surgeons required to learn only human anatomy. Newer techniques and an array of high tech of instruments have expanded the concept of surgery. Any medical student who wishes to take surgery as a speciality today also has to be proficient in handling advanced instruments and computer systems.
Here’s a snapshot of some the newer surgical techniques that will be included in your course of study if you choose surgery as your specialty.
Laser surgery is used for surgical work that calls for a high degree of precision, such as repairing a damaged retina. During a laser procedure, the highly focused and powerful beam of light energy is used to cut through tissue or to vaporize cancers of the larynx, skin, liver, cervix or rectum.
In laparoscopic surgery, a long, flexible tube is inserted into the body through one small incision. This is usually done either for exploratory procedures or to collect biopsies. Depending on the type of surgery and the location, the surgeon may sometimes create multiple small-sized incisions and perform the surgery using specialised instruments with a laparoscopic technique instead of creating one large incision as in traditional surgery.
Mohs micrographic surgery is usually done to remove certain types of skin cancers by shaving off one layer of skin at a time. It is also called microscopically controlled surgery and is performed under local anaesthesia by a specially trained surgeon. As each layer is removed, the tissues of the layer are studied under a microscope by a specially trained dermatologist or a pathologist. The surgery is complete when all the cells appear to be normal under the microscope,
Electrosurgery involves the use of a high frequency electrical current that destroys certain types of cancer cells in the mouth and skin.
In cryosurgery, a liquid nitrogen spray or a very cold probe is used to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue or cells. It is usually used to treat precancerous conditions such as those affecting the cervix. Studies are ongoing for using cryosurgery for the potential treatment of prostate and other cancers.
Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) allows doctors to view the inside of the chest cavity through tiny incisions. It is a less invasive and is performed using a thorascope, which is a rigid tube with a camera at one end. During this surgery, the lunch is collapsed and the thorascope is then inserted into the chest cavity through a small incision in the chest. This procedure is usually done to drain excess accumulated fluids, to take samples of suspicious cells for biopsy or to remove tumours on the surface of the lung.
Non-robotic minimally invasive surgery
Non-robotic minimally invasive surgery, also known as endoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure that utilizes an endoscope to reach internal organs through very small incisions. The endoscope is a thin, flexible tube with a video camera at one end. This technique allows the surgeon to see inside the patient’s body and operate through a much smaller incision than would otherwise be required of traditional open surgery.
Robotic-assisted surgery takes surgical procedures beyond the limits of the human hand. It combines the expertise of the surgeon with the 3D visualization of a high tech computer and the precise, controlled movements of robotic arms. This minimally invasive surgery technique combines the skills of the surgeon with accuracy of robotics and sophisticated computer technology.