Take A Closer Look At Surgical Specialties- Part ThreeJune 12, 2014
Exploring Surgery Specialties – Part Three
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons specialise in dentistry that involves diagnosing and providing surgical and adjunctive treatment to patients with injuries, defects and diseases that affect both the function and appearance of the oral and maxillofacial region. This specialty includes caring for the face and oral cavity, extraction of diseased and impacted teeth, dental implants, facial trauma, reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, pathologic conditions (tumours or cysts), correction of birth defects and facial pain including temporomandibular joint disorders.
An ophthalmologist’s specialty lies in medically and surgically treating all visual and ocular disorders. Ophthalmologists are trained to diagnose and treat all problems affecting the eye and its’ structures. They prescribe glasses and contact lenses and also perform cataract operations and basic glaucoma procedures.
A plastic surgeon specialises in the repair, replacement and reconstruction of anomalies in the form and function of the body and its underlying musculoskeletal system. The main emphasis of this specialty is on craniofacial structures, the breast, the oropharynx, and the upper and lower limbs. This surgical specialty also focuses on the aesthetic surgery of structures with undesirable form. For surgeons who specialise in plastic surgery, it is vital to have expert knowledge and skill in designing and transferring skin flaps, transplanting tissues, and replanting of structures.
Specialty certification in plastic surgery includes:
– Surgery of the Hand: This sub-specialty focuses on investigating and treating patients with injuries, abnormalities or diseases that affect the upper extremities. Expertise in microvascular surgery is necessary for reattaching amputated fingers or limbs. All hand surgeons must first be certified in plastic surgery and then complete additional training and testing in hand surgery.
– Plastic Surgery within the head and neck: To be able to perform plastic surgery within the head and neck, a plastic surgeon has to undergo additional training in cosmetic and reconstructive procedures of the head, face and neck. This area of expertise includes the head and neck, skin, neural surgery, oncology and reconstruction, soft tissue repair and management of maxillofacial trauma.
A urology surgeon focuses on treating and managing patients with benign and malignant (cancerous) medical and surgical disorders of the genitourinary system and the adrenal gland. Urologists have comprehensive knowledge and skills in percutaneous, endoscopic and open surgery of congenital and acquired conditions of the reproductive and urinary systems.
Colon and Rectal Surgery
A colon and rectal surgeon specialises in the diagnoses and medical and surgical treatment of patients with diseases of the intestinal tract, colon, anal canal and rectum. They have expertise in diagnosing and managing anorectal conditions such as fissures, haemorrhoids and abscesses along with other problems of the intestine and colon. Colon and rectal surgeons perform endoscopic and surgical procedures to detect and treat cancer, polyps, diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. These operations may be performed using traditional open surgery or minimally invasive (laparoscopic) techniques.